Wannacry Source Code Github

All aspects of. If you're using source snapshots / ports you can extract them like this: gzip -dc openvpn-. Now our team can receive an analysis in each commit and improve the code right away. Carpendale. I’m attempting to clone a repository from GitHub to VS Code, but I put in the wrong password for my credentials. " You can only search code using these code search qualifiers. This past week, someone posted the source code of Apple iPhone operating system iOS on GitHub - a repository of open source code. First, a series of Chinese-language slides that. GitHub Desktop Focus on what matters instead of fighting with Git. "Section 508" legislation. Notice from the above code that WannaCry is not proxy aware (check here for details). Is the WannaCry source code public? No. NET community on GitHub. How to access NVIDIA GameWorks Source on GitHub: You'll need a Github account that uses the same email address as the one used for your NVIDIA Developer Program membership. Sports Data Visualization. IRMA is a distributed, attribute-based authentication platform which is very privacy-friendly. “I don’t know that we could ever prevent something like that. You want to embed your Tableau content in lots of places. Will this harm security? Snapchat source code leaked on GitHub - but no one knows why - Naked Security. All of the book's source code is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2. Scotiabank reportedly stored highly sensitive digital property on a series of open GitHub repositories, potentially exposing its internal source code. "We can confirm that on 2019-07-06 there was a Canonical owned account on. All about ransomware. Considerations for code search. Reviewing PRs from within VS Code with in-editor commenting. Contribute to aguinet/wannakey development by creating an account on GitHub. Decompiled source code for the SLocker android ransomware, which saw a six-fold increase in the number of new versions over the past six months, has just been published on GitHub and is now available to anyone who wants it. GitLab EE is proprietary, closed source code but we try to work in a way similar to GitLab CE: the issue tracker is publicly viewable and the EE license allows modifications. Contributing to the Code Base. A chunk of Snapchat's source code that wasn't meant to be public just popped up on GitHub. This is what made the WannaCry ransomware so dangerous. It's confusing: GitHub-the-app is software that installs Git and gives you a pleasant interface for it, while also giving you the option to host your snapshots on GitHub-the-website. The Elementary PPA can be removed after Bookworm is installed. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ & 1234567890. I’m attempting to clone a repository from GitHub to VS Code, but I put in the wrong password for my credentials. Supported languages: C, C++, C#, Python, Ruby, Java, Javascript. A global cybersecurity attack (often involving WannaCry ransomware) today crippled healthcare systems in the United Kingdom and put security operations. Of the 35 million open source projects on the code-sharing website GitHub, many are sophisticated. If you have questions about Yorick, you may try the Yorick Forums or the mailing list. The go tool requires you to organize your code in a specific way. Mac OS Forge. The GitHub workflow, scaled for the needs of students. Meanwhile, on GitHub, proof-of-concept code detailing a workable exploit has appeared in at least two places, according to researchers at Sophos. You can report bugs and submit feature requests at GitHub. Robbie Barrat –– Artist working with artificial intelligence. What is it then?. GitHub annually releases the list of top open source projects that are live on the website. Source code analysis tools, also referred to as Static Application Security Testing (SAST) Tools, are designed to analyze source code and/or compiled versions of code to help find security flaws. Thanks to Microsoft who recently announced that it would purchase the hosted Git (version control system) service GitHub Inc. Some of these include SLocker copycatting WannaCry and abusing legitimate social networks, and LeakerLocker threatening to expose victims' personal data. Continue with GitHub. Find Open Source Software Projects from NASA. Machine Learning on Source Code. We are a group of researchers at Edinburgh University's School of Informatics interested in Machine learning techniques for the Analysis of Source code Text (MAST). Accept EULA. Facebook believes in building community through open source technology. If you are interested in downloading the Wine source code, you can clone portions of the source tree to your computer with Git. SDL also actively gives back to the community by open sourcing some of its key components as Open Source software. Browse and search flexible applications, frameworks, and extensions built with our powerful developer platform. Search Google; About Google; Privacy; Terms. Crytek senior systems engineer David Kaye explained in a blog post that this will. SourceForge used to be the go-to for free and open source software code repositories. AWS CodeCommit is a fully-managed source control service that hosts secure Git-based repositories. Wannacry in-memory key recovery. The generated website can be deployed to any web host with no additional configurations, e. com, GitHub Enterprise, Bitbucket Server, or. It's confusing: GitHub-the-app is software that installs Git and gives you a pleasant interface for it, while also giving you the option to host your snapshots on GitHub-the-website. It’s sometimes confusing what to choose. Why you'll love to develop on your Mac Open Source in macOS. It's not an authoritative, complete list, since it's hard to keep track of all the smaller projects that crop up (and even, at times, the large ones!). In this post I show how I added Azure DevOps CI to one of the. this attack was started on 12 may 2017 and almost attack 2 million Microsoft Operating System. NOTE: GitHub is the place for all future development of the. As a 3rd party developper (user) you can download libmatroska and libebml from there official location in. Apparently, an iOS update in May exposed a small amount of the app's source code. Search Google; About Google; Privacy; Terms. The same source code can be compiled to create binaries for different platforms such as GNU /Linux, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris and many others. There is also a companion site, the unofficial yorick home page, where you will also find information about plugin distribution, linux repositories, and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Weeping Angel – Spying tool used by the agency to infiltrate smart TV's, transforming them into covert. Go ahead, analyze it all. This gist was built by the community of the researchers and was scribed by Kir and Igor from the QIWI/Vulners. Contributing to the Code Base. It seems that a popular use of software reverse engineering skills is to reverse malicious code in an effort to build better protection for users. Full availability of the integrated source code will be available by the end of 2012. 1 with by by. I twitted this other day: I got an email from one my client who is @Github private repo business customer. Compiling Source. / Scanner , Security Tools Pentest-Detections is a Repository for penetration testing tools and Vulnerability scanner for MS17-010. 6 million (50. Yehuda added that just because code is on GitHub, it doesn't necessarily mean that the code does anything useful. GitHub annually releases the list of top open source projects that are live on the website. In this tutorial, we'll use a Jenkins GitHub pull request to demonstrate how to link Jenkins to your source code to seamlessly use that code within build jobs. The Subsonic source code was released under the GPLv3 through version 6. The import process will import the git repository for the project. It suggests a security researcher called ZeroSum0x0 published an implementation of EternalBlue's exploit in Ruby on Github shortly before Wannacry began to spread – this code, designed to work. This code path is optimized for drawing deforming surfaces with static topology at interactive framerates. We try to be a good steward of the open source project. NET that is maintained by Microsoft and the. Some of these include SLocker copycatting WannaCry and abusing legitimate social networks, and LeakerLocker threatening to expose victims' personal data. With them, you have all the. How to access NVIDIA GameWorks Source on GitHub: You'll need a Github account that uses the same email address as the one used for your NVIDIA Developer Program membership. OpenTreeMap is a unique subscription-based collaborative platform that combines a suite of tools for data collection, condition assessment, ecosystem benefits calculations, and public engagement. According to a report on The Next Web, a Twitter account though to belong to the person who posted the source code online suggests that it was only published on GitHub after attempts to contact SnapChat failed. ,:;… ¡!¿? Ξεσκεπάζω την. Similarity of GitHub Repositories by Source Code Identifiers. Where can I learn more about Fuchsia? See fuchsia. Image Processing 27 (11) 5350-5364, 2018 ". Github Pages, Azure Websites. A gentle animation that provides a calming experience to stressed developers. this vulnerability. government may not be able to prevent another global cyberattack like WannaCry, a senior cybersecurity official has said. Ever wondered what all the ransomware fuss is about? You've heard about it at the office or read about it in the news. You'll need OpenSSL, zlib, libvorbis and one of the packages to support the audio backends. Source code that performs useful utility-like functions: There are a total of 57 resources for you to browse. They are to ensure we use the service in a way that makes sense to you and ensures our code is healthy and secure. There are 45 code repositories. System LSI is working on providing source codes for the Exynos 4 family, utilized on the Origen developers board. Code formatting can be a huge pain point. PMD is a source code analyzer. If you are looking for a way to decrypt files encrypted by Ransomware then this complete list of Ransomware decrypt & removal tools will help you unlock files encrypted or locked by ransomware on. C Ransomware attack. The Mono source code is hosted on GitHub using the Git source code control system for all of its source code. You might even see your work in future releases. But for most students, real world tools can be cost-prohibitive. Automatically sync changes to Cloud Source Repositories when changes are pushed to GitHub or Bitbucket. Lode Runner - Total Recall (超級運動員-全面回憶) Web page (English). Teacher training to master Git and GitHub. If you've found a bug and just want to report it, please open a ticket in our issue tracker with a reproducer. We are excited to bring the idea of social coding to Esri. FreeOTP is a two-factor authentication application for systems utilizing one-time password protocols. searchcode is a free source code and documentation search engine. How to access NVIDIA GameWorks Source on GitHub: You'll need a Github account that uses the same email address as the one used for your NVIDIA Developer Program membership. Just enter your GitHub username/repo and approve. Have you tried www. If you are only interested in the latest development build then use the link under Latest source packages. It has been described as unprecedented in scale. If you use windows, try TortoiseGit. GitHub Alternatives: 25+ great open source sites to manage your source code - AlternativeTo. Scraper is pretty easy to use if you know some basic XPath syntax (and jQuery selectors). Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) are the backbone of the academic reference and metrics system. […] Pingback by The WannaCry journey from a SOC point of view - internal sinkholing of killswitch servers - Scubarda — Tuesday 16 May 2017 @ 5:36. By downloading, you agree to the Open Source Applications Terms. Find this by searching by title or ISBN in the search box at the top of this page. Anyone violating this code of conduct may be removed and banned from the community. –– email twitter github –– If you are on mobile, view in landscape mode. This is what made the WannaCry ransomware so dangerous. "Section 508" legislation. Open source software (OSS) is everywhere, powering the languages, frameworks, and applications your team uses every day. It also offers other common options such as a license file. Note: The topics property for repositories on GitHub is currently available for developers to preview. Organizations: Organization accounts represent collections of people on GitHub. GitHub has been the favorite place for hosting open source projects. However, Wladimir van der Laan, the lead maintainer of the Bitcoin Core GitHub repository, stated on Twitter that the move is "the beginning of a long painful road" for the platform and that the Bitcoin project should move its source code elsewhere. It suggests a security researcher called ZeroSum0x0 published an implementation of EternalBlue's exploit in Ruby on Github shortly before Wannacry began to spread - this code, designed to work. This is a contribution by Tan Kean Siong, follow him on Twitter @gento_. Hunt as a companion to Source Sans. The bottleneck here for people aspiring to break into the security industry through this path seems to be easy access to new malicious code samples to practice on and build heuristics for. GitHub is a web-based Git repository hosting service that offers all of the distributed revision control and source code management functionality of Git combined with a unique set of other features. L'ingénieur Neel Nehta, informaticien, employé de la société Google, a mis en ligne des portions de code source qui démontreraient certaines similitudes entre ce nouveau virus et une autre série de piratages attribués à ce pays asiatique [38]. The Retefe banking trojan is now using the EternalBlue exploit that helped spread WannaCry to make attacks more. Brief: If you are looking to migrate from GitHub, here are some of the best alternatives to GitHub for hosting the source code of your open source project. It also installs the DOUBLEPULSAR backdoor. The source code for Apollo 11's guidance computer has been available for a while (Google hosted it several years ago. Create Idea and code base by Senseful Solutions. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Image Processing 27 (11) 5350-5364, 2018 ". Free and open source. To push new code on an ongoing basis to both GitHub and SourceForge, you can configure git on your development machine to do that. WannaCry ransomware variations at Virus Total (four until now):. Anyone (not just committers) can share contributions to WSO2's open-source software products. About News Downloads User Guides Release Notes Frequently Asked Questions Issue Tracker Latest: blueCFD-Core 2017-2 Problems with building from source code. GitHub is a web-based Git repository hosting service that offers all of the distributed revision control and source code management functionality of Git combined with a unique set of other features. Reviewing PRs from within VS Code with in-editor commenting. Learn about the 200+ open source projects that ship with macOS Darwin Technologies. The companies claim to have found some code in an earlier version of the WCry ransomware that had also been used in programs deployed by the Lazarus Group, which is reportedly run by the Hermit Kingdom. Is the WannaCry source code public? No. Respondents were sampled randomly from traffic and qualifying activity to licensed open source repositories on GitHub. It also does the same to GitHub repositories — especially when they contain the company's proprietary source code. - ytisf/theZoo. The Lazarus code, by contrast, looks far more like a reuse of unique code by a single group out of convenience. Developers Docs Sponsorships Open Source. A team of researchers from R&D company Draper and Boston University developed a new large-scale vulnerability detection system using machine learning algorithms, which could help to discover software vulnerabilities faster and more efficiently. Diagnostics. Maybe you've got a pop-up on your computer screen right now warning of a ransomware infection. Windows 10 UWP samples Source code for the Windows Driver Frameworks (WDF - a set of libraries that make it simple to write high-quality device. Whether you're new to Git or a seasoned user, GitHub Desktop simplifies your development workflow. GitHub Campus Experts. Apple source code for a core component of iPhone's operating system has purportedly been leaked on GitHub, that could allow hackers and researchers to discover currently unknown zero-day vulnerabilities to develop persistent malware and iPhone jailbreaks. Apparently, an iOS update in May exposed a small amount of the app's source code. Project Explorer: Display the tree view of files in the current project/assembly. The WannaCry code can take advantage of any existing DoublePulsar infection, or installs it itself. If you have questions about Yorick, you may try the Yorick Forums or the mailing list. The opendev. Apollo 11 guidance computer source code now on github. Crytek senior systems engineer David Kaye explained in a blog post that this will. View on GitHub Technical introduction to IRMA. Well I build a few Open-Source projects and I want to have my cake and eat it too. A repository of LIVE malwares for your own joy and pleasure. This gist was built by the community of the researchers and was scribed by Kir and Igor from the QIWI/Vulners. By downloading, you agree to the Open Source Applications Terms. The PerfView repository also contains the complete source code for the Microsoft. GitHub Desktop Focus on what matters instead of fighting with Git. 1 with by by. Zach Gibson/Bloomberg/Getty Images Posted Snapchat Source Code on GitHub. This gist was built by the community of the researchers and was scribed by Kir and Igor from the QIWI/Vulners. org and GitHub mirrors are maintained the same way and contain the same code, so you can use either one, with the difference being that opendev. Supported languages: C, C++, C#, Python, Ruby, Java, Javascript. In this post you'll find the related resources I know of so far: Update: I know I said all — but it. The malware is using the EternalBlue (MS17–010. Businesses and savvy developers won't touch a project without this protection. A subreddit dedicated to hacking and hackers. The go tool requires you to organize your code in a specific way. Source Code If you’d like to browse the WordPress source and inline documentation, we have a convenient developer reference and a code browser. Notice from the above code that WannaCry is not proxy aware (check here for details). Yehuda added that just because code is on GitHub, it doesn't necessarily mean that the code does anything useful. However, Wladimir van der Laan, the lead maintainer of the Bitcoin Core GitHub repository, stated on Twitter that the move is "the beginning of a long painful road" for the platform and that the Bitcoin project should move its source code elsewhere. NET community on GitHub. GitHub Campus Experts. About News Downloads User Guides Release Notes Frequently Asked Questions Issue Tracker Latest: blueCFD-Core 2017-2 Problems with building from source code. Helps you convert between Unicode character numbers, characters, UTF-8 and UTF-16 code units in hex, percent escapes,and Numeric Character References (hex and decimal). this how system look after the. FreeOTP is a two-factor authentication application for systems utilizing one-time password protocols. Free and open source. VS Code ships with a Git. A repository of LIVE malwares for your own joy and pleasure. This website hosts the companion material from the article on State of the Art of Sports Data Visualization by C. Training to enrich the technology community at your school. All made possible from the cloud. A portion of iOS’s source code was leaked online yesterday and quickly removed after Apple filed a takedown notice with GitHub, where the code was posted. It allows discovery, configuration and operation of hundreds of VR/AR devices and peripherals. Crytek senior systems engineer David Kaye explained in a blog post that this will. GitHub for your whole school, with everything you need to make it great. GitHub Open Source Applications Terms and Conditions. We are excited to bring the idea of social coding to Esri. GitHub Classroom. Helps you convert between Unicode character numbers, characters, UTF-8 and UTF-16 code units in hex, percent escapes,and Numeric Character References (hex and decimal). So, what happened?. It was found hijacking victim's CPU cycles to. Ubuntu maker’s GitHub account hacked — but the source code is safe. Wekan on Sandstorm is not affected by any Standalone Wekan (Snap/Docker/Source) security issues. js, and easily deployed on platforms like Heroku. Go ahead, analyze it all. Whilst I was away on a tropical island enjoying myself the Infosec Internet was on fire with news of the global WannaCry ransomware threat which showed up in the UK NHS and was spreading across 74 different countries. L'ingénieur Neel Nehta, informaticien, employé de la société Google, a mis en ligne des portions de code source qui démontreraient certaines similitudes entre ce nouveau virus et une autre série de piratages attribués à ce pays asiatique [38]. Microsoft plans to make it available to all the developers on GitHub. Two more Microsoft zero-days uploaded on GitHub. But with Microsoft entering the scene, the scenario. The support includes: Authenticating and connecting VS Code to GitHub. It is not for everyone, as it involves using something like. Posts about Source Code written by Jeff Peters. Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. Hunt as a companion to Source Sans. This quick post is about how you can use GitHub and the OSS Index to scan your project's NuGet packages for vulnerabilities - a good example of how perform your application security early on in the application life cycle (also known as 'shift left') So here's a problem You're working on a. Find a detailed description of the code philosophy, components, and implementations in the SU2 AIAA Journal article. Jason Koebler shares a report from Motherboard: An anonymous person posted what experts say is the source code for a core component of the iPhone's operating system on GitHub, which could pave the way for hackers and security researchers to find vulnerabilities in iOS and make iPhone jailbreaks easi. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU VWXYZ & 1234567890. Jan 25, 2013 · GitHub is a source code repository which lets developers work on programs together as a team, even when they are in different locations. You may find the bleeding edge builds at the CI Server. Netflix is committed to open source. Meanwhile, on GitHub, proof-of-concept code detailing a workable exploit has appeared in at least two places, according to researchers at Sophos. The SciChart WPF, iOS and Android projects now have Github repositories where nightly builds are stored. Well I build a few Open-Source projects and I want to have my cake and eat it too. There is also a companion site, the unofficial yorick home page, where you will also find information about plugin distribution, linux repositories, and more. Explore the latest source code tree from GitHub. If you're using source snapshots / ports you can extract them like this: gzip -dc openvpn-. Your work will be recognized: if your contribution - feature enhancement, bug fix, or other improvements - is accepted, your name will be included as an author in the official commit logs. Windows on Github. Facebook is a big Advocate of Open Source Technologies, actively contributing source code to Open Source community March 15, 2014 Facebook is a big advocate of Open Source Technologies, always contribute to source code to Open Source Community from its big projects. Anyone can fund any issues on GitHub and these money will be distributed to maintainers and contributors IssueHunt help build sustainable open. Respondents were sampled randomly from traffic and qualifying activity to licensed open source repositories on GitHub. Dubbed as the Cloud Source Repositories the service provides you with a single place where you can your team can track, manage, and store your code. Employees ask GitHub to cancel ICE contract: ‘We cannot offset human lives with money’ Popular platform for hosting, sharing and reviewing code pledges to donate $500,000 to nonprofits. There is a tutorial on how to use Git with the Wine program source, but any one of the repositories on the main source tree can be cloned with the command. EzeSoler WannaCry 2. Our technology focuses on providing immersive experiences across all internet-connected screens. Download for macOS Download for Windows (64bit) Download for macOS or Windows (msi) Download for Windows. If the book has source code, there will be a button marked Download Source Code. ,:;… ¡!¿? Ξεσκεπάζω την. A portion of iOS’s source code was leaked online yesterday and quickly removed after Apple filed a takedown notice with GitHub, where the code was posted. Fix or report bugs. One of the greatest strength of your Linux distribution is its package manager and the associated software repository. 📺 Hidden Tear es un Ransomware realizado para fines educativo por Utku Sen. com with the stated purpose of allowing legal "white hat" penetration testers to test the CVE-2017-0144 exploit on unpatched systems. Apparently, an iOS update in May exposed a small amount of the app's source code. If you are looking for a way to decrypt files encrypted by Ransomware then this complete list of Ransomware decrypt & removal tools will help you unlock files encrypted or locked by ransomware on. Use for any code level questions related to the Parse Platform. As the largest open source community in the world, GitHub is where open source best practices start. The extension makes VS Code an excellent IDE, and works on any operating system with a variety of Python interpreters. The decompiled source code for the popular video game Undertale has been posted to GitHub. Decompiled source code for the SLocker android ransomware, which saw a six-fold increase in the number of new versions over the past six months, has just been published on GitHub and is now available to anyone who wants it. Whenever you commit to this repository, GitHub Pages will run Jekyll to rebuild the pages in your site, from the content in your Markdown files. Google researcher Neel Mehta has noticed that an early version of WannaCry's code shares similarities with a February 2015 sample from the Lazarus Group, a North Korea-linked outfit blamed for. The hope is that Code. Dangers of Cyberattacks as a Result of Source Code Leak. NET Core is an open-source and cross-platform version of. Open source software (OSS) is everywhere, powering the languages, frameworks, and applications your team uses every day. Yes, yes, I know, I said GitHub is a website for hosting Git snapshots, but here I am telling you to install GitHub to use Git. GitHub de Hidden Tear: https. Potvin most recently led the data insights group at Google Cloud. Windows 10 UWP samples Source code for the Windows Driver Frameworks (WDF - a set of libraries that make it simple to write high-quality device. Start here. The bottleneck here for people aspiring to break into the security industry through this path seems to be easy access to new malicious code samples to practice on and build heuristics for. Click on this to be taken to the book's page on GitHub. The code analysis platform provider Semmle wants to expand its reach with the announcement that it is joining GitHub. Wannacry in-memory key recovery. Contributing to the Code Base. Project Explorer: Display the tree view of files in the current project/assembly. 1 with by by. It is the easiest way to make bounty program for OSS. If you're using source snapshots / ports you can extract them like this: gzip -dc openvpn-. The Retefe banking trojan is now using the EternalBlue exploit that helped spread WannaCry to make attacks more. Openness is part of our DNA. These can be paid or free, big or small, businesses or nonprofits. 0 International license. GitHub annually releases the list of top open source projects that are live on the website. WannaCry would shut down if this URL could be reached (this check was probably done to fool dynamic analysis tools, which are typically configured to return valid, dummy responses to all network queries). Find this by searching by title or ISBN in the search box at the top of this page. A gentle animation that provides a calming experience to stressed developers. But it has established there’s no evidence that any source code or personally identifiable information was affected. This code of conduct provides guidance on participation in Amazon-managed open source communities, and outlines the process for reporting unacceptable behavior. NET Core web framework, Windows desktop frameworks, and Entity Framework Core data access. The company went through some malware trouble in 2015, but was purchased and on its way to good health as of January 2016. 0 (SMBv1) due to improper handling of certain requests. There are many ways to get access to the source code. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Hubot knew how to deploy the site, automate a lot of tasks, and be a source of fun around the office. Twitter has been built on open source since the beginning. Getting the latest SpiderMonkey source code from Git. Python Crash Course Resources for Python Crash Course, from No Starch Press. Please read this document carefully. Well, if you're curious to learn all there is to know about ransomware, you've come to the right place. a github version of ?source). Godot provides a huge set of common tools, so you can just focus on making your game without reinventing the wheel. It’s been a bad week for security, beginning with hardware and software vulnerabilities affecting potentially “tens of millions” of Cisco enterprise routers. Your project. Besides the exploit's source code and a short demo video, only a three-line summary is available for this zero-day. That should change going forward. I have written a few articles about GitHub which you can review here, to call them out specifically: Setting up and using GitHub in Visual Studio 2017 Setting up and using GitHub in Visual Studio 2015 Deploy GitHub source code repositories to an Azure App Service Failed to deploy from GitHub to Azure App Service. This is a tool to index, then query or search C, C++, Java, Python, Ruby and Go source code. That's why we created the GitHub Student Developer Pack with some of our partners and friends: to give students free access to the best developer tools in one place so they can learn by doing. Use it with any Git code host for teams from 1 to 10,000+. Stolper, J.